Archive for October, 2010

General Photos

   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

 

   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Lineolateds Parkiete

Lineolateds die mees omgewing-vriendelike parkiet.

Alternatiewelik name: “Barred Parakeet” of “Catharine Parakeet”.

Wetenskaplike naam: Bolborhynchus lineola lineola

Subspesie:
 
Bolborhynchus lineola tigrinus. Die subspesie word oor die algemeen die “Barred Parakeet” genoem. Suiwer vorme van beide is uiters skaars aangesien tydens teling nie voorsiening gemaak is vir die twee nie. Ingevoerde wilde voëls kom selde voor
.
Ander binne die familie: 
Bolborhynchus orbygnesins : “Andean Parakeet” 
Bolborhynchus ferrugineidrons : “Rufous-fronted Parakeet”. 
Die algemene opvatting is dat die Sierra- en die Mountain- parakeet ook binne      die familie val, maar gekyk na die onderskeie twee voëls, lyk hulle totaal anders.   Volgens Juniper en Purr (1998) behoort hierdie twee eerder tot diePsilopsiagon’s.

Herkoms:
Suid- en Sentraal- Amerika. lineola lineola: Mexiko suidwaarts tot in Panama.      In digte woude ver bo seespieël.  lineola tigrinus: Colombia suidwaarts tot in Peru.In oop bosse en gras vlaktes van subtropiese gebiede.

Beskrywing:
lineola lineola: Vere liggroen met swart op die punte, wat die “barred”-effek gee. Die swart wissel van voël tot voël en van wyfie na mannetjie. Die verskille is meestal uiters klein en onopvallend. Die “barred”-effek is duidelik op die stert, vlerke, sye en skouers. Die nek en wange toon ook duidelike swart lyne. Die bors en maag is ‘n ligter skakering groen, geler van kleur, met geen swart lyntjies. Die swart lyntjies van die nekvere word onduidelik op die mantel. Die skouer is swart. Die bek is beenkleurig, met ‘n swart punt, terwyl die pote vleeskleurig is met swart toonnaels. Die veerbedekking onder die vlerke is vaal- tot blou-groen van kleur, sonder die lyntjies. Die oogring grys met ‘n bruin iris. Die stert is kort en gepunt. Lineola tigrinus: Verskil van lineola met in die dat die swart “barring” baie duideliker is en die “barring” van die skouers amper totaal swart is. Die bek en pote is ook  donkerder van kleur.

Grootte: 16cm.

Gewig: 50gram.

Lewensverwagting: 10jaar

Geslagsbepaling:
Oor die algemeen kan die geslag redelik maklik met ‘n geoefende oog bepaal    word. Die hoeveelheid swart aan die bokant van die stert gee die geslag weg. Die   mees akkurate metode bly egter DNA of Kliniese bepaling. Mannetjies: Middelste twee stertvere groen met ‘n swart punt wat oploop tot by die skag. Wyfie: Middelste twee stertvere groen met geen of min swart op die punte.          Kuikens: Swart merke minder, terwyl die groen ‘n ligter kleur toon, veral op die kop.    

Lineolated Mannetjie (Groen)

Lineolated Wyfie (Blou)
Dieet:
Verskeidenheid klein sade soos millet, manna, kanarie, lyn, niger en hemp. Sonneblom moet totaal vermy word, verskeidenheid vrugte, groente asook bloeisels van bloekombome word geniet.

Broei:
Legsels bestaan gewoonlik uit 3-6 eiers wat na 18-21dae uitbroei. Die wyfie begin broei na die tweede eier gelê is. Kuikens bly in die nes vir 5 weke waarna hulle ‘n verdere 14-20 dae by die ouers bly totdat hulle gespeen is. ‘n Tweede of selfs derde legsel per jaar is moontlik. Kuikens begin egter vroeg reeds peusel maar sal steeds vra vit kos. Kuikens het ligte vaal dons by geboorte wat donker grys word voordat die vere begin deurkom. Neskaste verskil na gelang van voorkeur, die algemene grote is egter 20cm X 20cm X 30cm (LxBxH). Die binnekant word uitgelê met 50% growwe saagsels en 50% riviersand, (4cm).Die wyfie sal ook sodra sy begin nes maak, donsvere gebruik om die nes mee uit te voer. Jong voëls is broeigereed so vroeg as ses maande, maar dit is belangrik om kuikens te verhoed om te broei voor twaalf maande. Gevestigde pare moet verkieslik nie opgebreek word nie, indien wel en hulle sien mekaar steeds, sal die nuwe paar moeilik gevestig word. 

Neskaste   Akkommodasie:
Hanghokke van 1,2m X 0,5m X 0,9m per paar word gebruik. Konvensionele     hokke met groter afmetings kan gebruik word om op ‘n kolonie basis te teel. Die  gebruik in die buiteland is om die voëls in klein broeikaste soos vir kanaries te teel. Die broeikaste word dan ook binnenshuis in beheerde omgewings geplaas. Hier in Suid-Afrika verkies die telers om voëls te koop wat nie binnenshuis  geteel is nie. Terwyl klimaat toestande hier deur die jaar meer gunstig is, sodat hulle buite aangehou kan word. Voëls slaap in die neskaste.

Algemeen:
Hierdie unieke voëltjie is die mees omgewings-vriendelike voël wat daar kan wees. Hulle is nie lawaaierig nie, nie vernielsugtig nie, van nature baie mak en vra min spasie. Die mees uitstaande kenmerk van die spesie is sy bewegings, wat lyk of  alles in stadige aksie gedoen word. Wanneer die voël opgewonde is sal die stert vere herhaaldelik oop gesprei en toegetrek word. Skrik die voëls, is al die stadige aksies egter vergete en vlieg hulle paniekerig en ontwykend met onverwagte vaart in die hok rond. Normaalweg hou hulle daarvan om eerder te loop as om te vlieg. Let op dat voëls se toonnaels baie vinnig groei en maklik te lank word. Mannetjies wat wil paar sal homself langs die wyfie posisioneer en sy een poot optel en op die rug van die wyfie plaas. Hierdie gedrag is ook ‘n duidelike  teken van geslag en mens kan daarvoor oplet by jong voëls wat die geslag sal  bevestig. Dit word algemeen aanvaar dat voëls ook binne die neskaste sal paar. Wyfies broei alleen maar die mannetjie word gereeld saam met die wyfie in die nes gesien. Handgrootgemaakte voëls is baie lieftallig en maak uitstekende  troeteldiere en selfs‘n paar woorde kan aangeleer word. Aggresiwiteit is nie deel    van die voël se samestelling nie, nie teenoor mekaar nie en ook nie teenoor hulle   kuikens nie. Hierdie voëls sal nooit in die waterbak bad nie, maar waardeer ‘n ligte sproei. Hulle hang onderstebo en sprei die vlerke oop om die maksimum voordeel te kry. Wanneer die water te veel en te hard val sal hulle die situasie vermy. Die voëls het ‘n afsku in skerp sonlig en vermy dit altyd. Wanneer daar geëet word, kan jy tot baie naby kom, voordat hulle wegvlieg.  Mutasies:
 
Daar bestaan huidiglik verskeie mutasies en kombinasies daarvan.
Primêre kleur (Normaal) Liggroen Primêre mutasies: Lutino (geslagsgekoppel)     Turqouise (resessief) (normaalweg Blougenoem) Edge (geslagsgekoppel ko-dominant)  Donker faktorige. Bont (resessief) (nog nie gevestig nie) Sekondêre mutasies: Creamino (geslagsgekoppel resessief)                     Donkergroen (1 donker faktor)  Olyfgroen (2donkerfaktore)  Kobalt (resessief met 1 donker faktor)  Mauve (resessief met 2 donker faktore)

 

 

 Beskrywing van die mutasies:
Waar die teken (*) voorkom beteken dit dat die paring omgedraai kan word en die uitkoms sal dieselfde wees. 

Lutino : Alle swart pigment word verloor en die voël is totaal geel. Die naels is ook  bleek in plaas van die swart en die oë is rooi. Mannetjies en wyfies kan nie  onderskei word nie, optrede kan ‘n aanduiding wees maar, moet nie op vertrou word nie.

Groen X Lutino = man. 100% Groen/Lutino + wyf. 100% Groen 

Lutino X Groen = man. 100% Groen/Lutino + wyf. 100% Lutino 

Lutino verberg altyd die donker faktor, Lutino’s lyk dieselfde. 

Creamino : Alle swart pigment word verloor en ‘n groot deel van die geel pigment sodat  die voël ‘n cream voorkoms het. Die toonnaels is bleek en die oë rooi. Geslag kan nie uiterlik onderskei word nie. 

Blou X Lutino/Blou = man. 50% Groen/Blou/Lutino + 50% Blou/Lutino wyf. 50% Groen/Blou + 50% Blou    

Lutino/Blou X Blou = man. 50% Groen/Blou/Lutino + 50% Blou/Lutino        wyf. 50% Lutino/Blou + 50% Creamino 

Creamino verberg altyd die donker faktor, Creamino’s lyk dieselfde. 

Donkergroen : Al die eienskappe van die normale groen maar die skakering groen is  duidelik donkerder.  

               

Groen X Donkergroen = 50% Groen + 50% Donkergroen(*)                       

Een donker faktor moet oorgedra word na die helfte van die kuikens.        

Olyfgroen : Al die eienskappe van die normale groen maar die groen is olyfgroen. 

Donkergroen X  Donkergroen = 25% Groen  +  50% Donkergroen  + 25% Olyfgroen (*) 

Donkergroen X Olyfgroen = 50% Donkergroen + 50% Olyfgroen (*) 

Twee donker faktore moet na een kuiken oorgedra word. 

Blou : Groot deel van die geel pigment verdwyn om die amper suiwer ligblou te kry, verder word al die ander eienskappe behou.

(Turqouise blou) Groen X Blou = 100% Groen/Blou (*) Groen/Blou X Blou = 50% Groen/Blou + 50% Blou (*) Blou X Blou = 100% Blou (*) 

Kobalt : Soos in blou maar die blou is baie donkerder, amper persblou.

(Turqouise kobalt) Donkergroen/Blou X Blou = 25% Groen/Blou + 25% Donkergroen/Blou + 25% Blou + 25% Kobalt (*) 

Blou X Kobalt = 50% Blou + 50% Kobalt (*)  

Mauve : Al die eienskappe van die normale voël behalwe dat die kleur grys is. Sommige voëls toon ‘n kobalt-skynsel.

(Turqouise mauve) Donkergroen/Blou X Kobalt = 12.5% Groen/Blou + 12.5% Blou + 25% Donkergroen/Blou + 25% Kobalt + 12.5% Mauve          12.5% Olyfgroen/Blou (*) 

Kobalt X Mauve = 50% Kobalt + 50% Mauve (*)   

Edge (Gesoomd) : Word ook Spangle genoem. Die eienskap van die mutasie is ‘n gedeeltelike (80%) vermindering in swart pigment op die een X-kromosoom (enkelfaktor man) en amper totale (80% + 80%) vermindering in swart pigment op beide die X-kromosome (dubbelfaktorige mannetjies). Aangesien die wyfie oor slegs een  X-kromosoom beskik wat dus ook (80%) vermindering toon (enkelfaktorige  wyfies) vertoon die wyfies dieselfde as die dubbelfaktorige mannetjies. Aangesien die mutasie nie net ko-dominant is nie, is dit ook geslagsgekoppel en dit is die rede waarom daar nie ‘n dubbelfaktorige wyfie kan wees nie. Onthou as daar van geslagsgekoppelde mutasie gepraat word, moet in terme van X- en Y-kromosome gepraat word. Mannetjies beskik oor twee X-kromosome en wyfies oor een. Mannetjies word getoon as XX en wyfies as XY

EdgeGroen(EF) X Groen = man. 50% EdgeGroen (EF) + 50% Groen  wyf. 50% EdgeGroen (EF) + 50% Groen 

EdgeGroen(DF) X Groen = 100% EdgeGroen (EF) 

EdgeGroen(EF) X EdgeGroen(EF) = man. 25% EdgeGroen(DF) + 50% EdgeGroen(EF) +25% Groen wyf. 50% EdgeGroen(EF)+50% Gr 

EdgeGroen(DF) X EdgeGroen(EF) = man. 100% EdgeGroen(DF) wyf. 100% EdgeGroen(EF) 

Bont : Die mutasie is nog uiters skaars en verskil baie van voël tot voël. Die vere wat geen swart pigment bevat kan min of wyd verspreid wees Die bont eienskap kan opvallend wees of minder opvallend. Die mate van bont is nie ‘n aanduiding van  hoe die kuikens gaan lyk nie. Die verlies in swart pigment kan ook die pote  beinvloed, waar die naels swart is sal die verlies aan pigment die naels bleek maak.

  

BontGroen X Groen = 100% Groen/Bont (*) 

Groen/Bont X Groen/Bont = 25% Groen + 50% Groen/Bont + 25% Bont 

BontGroen X Groen/Bont = 50% Groen/Bont + 50% BontGroen(*)

Pryse:
 Die pryse wissel vanaf R150elk vir Groen tot R1500elk vir Creamino en Edge (DF). Die prys van bont is nog onbekend aangesien die kleur nog baie skaars is en nog nie volkomegevestig is nie. 

By die aankoop van mutasies moet altyd onthou word dat die volgende nie kan voorkom nie: Geen wyfie kan split vir Lutino of Creamino, slegs mannetjies. Lutino en Creamino sal die donker faktor verberg.     Lutino en Creamino sal die Bont faktor verberg. Geen voël kan split vir ‘n donker faktor.Alle Groen voëls kan split vir Blou (Turqouise).                        Geen voëls kan split vir Edge (Spangle). Dubbel faktor mannetjies en enkel faktor wyfies lyk altyd dieselfde. Alle Edge voëls wat min verbleking toon sal altyd enkel faktor mannetjies wees.  Alle voëls kan split vir Bont. Aangesien Bont resessief is kan voëls nie dubbel faktorig wees nie.

  Geskryf deur Fanie Klopper.

Proposed Ring Size

  Proposed ring size
4mm (code A)
PARAKEET :             Blue – wing , elegant , Splendid , Bourke’s , Aymara , Budgie.
PARROTLET –         All
LORY/LORIKEET : Fairy , Red – fronted , Whiskered.

4.5mm (code B)
PARAKEET :              Red-rumped , Golden-shouldered , Hooded , Many-coloured ,
                                       Kakariki , Naretha blue bonnet.
LOVEBIRD –              ALL
LORY/LORIKEET :  Red-flanked , Goldie’s , Meyer’s , Hanging Parrots.
FIG PARROT :           Double-eyed , Orange-breasted.

5mm ( code C)
PARAKEET :              Swift , Stanley’s , Brow’s , Lineolated , Canary-winged , Golden
                                       mantled , Red & Yellow vented blue bonnet.
LORY/LORIKEET : Josephine’s , Emerald , Musk , Musschenbroek’s , Yellow & Green
               Iris , MT.Apo , Blue-crowned.

5.5mm (code D)
PARAKEET :             Mealy, Barnard’s, Pileated, Cloncurry, Horned, blossom-headed, Cockatiels
CONURE:                  Black-capped, Black-tailed, green-cheeked (Inc Yellow-sided), Maroon-                                                            

                                       Bellied, Painted, White-eared, Fiery-shouldered, Crimson-bellied, Pearly,  
                                       Roseifrons, Rose-crowned, Hoffman’s

LORY/LORIKEET:  Perfect, Mitchell’s

6mm (code – E )

PARAKEET:              Pennant’s, Adelaide, Green & yellow Rosella, Barraband’s, Port-lincoln, Twenty- eight,
                                      Crimson-   winged, Princess, Malabar, Slaty-headed, Plum-               
                                      Headed, African- ringneck, Emerald-collard, Quaker.

CONURE:                   Brown-throated, st Thomas, Bon-aire,  Cactus, Peach-fronted, Petz, Blue-
                                      throated, olive-throated, Aruba, Dusky-headed.

LORY/LORIKEET:   Ornate, Coconut, Weber’s, Blue-headed, Stella’s, Obi, Violet-necked,
                                         Forsten’s, Scaly-breasted

 7mm (code-F)
PARAKEET:               All kings, Moustache, Indian-ring-necked

CONTURE:                 Sun, Golden-capped, Jendaya, Finch’s, Red-throated, Green, Cuban.
PARROT:                     Brown-headed, Ruppel’s, Senegal,  Red-bellied, Meyer’s, Dusky,  Plum-
                                       crowen Pionus, Pileated
LORIKEET:                 Yellow-bibbed, Blue-eared, Blue-streaked, Red& Blue, Black-winged, Red,
                                         Swains’s, Green-napped, Red- collared, Rosenberg’s, Edward’s
MACAW:                     Hann’s
8mm (code- G)
PARAKEET:               Alexandrine.
LORY/LORIKEET:   Black, Cardinal, Duvenbode’s, Yellow-streaked, Purple-naped, Chattering,
                                      Yellow-backed, Black-capped, Red-breasted, Salvadori’s, Black-capped
CONURE:                   Patagonian, Nanday, Wagler’s, red-masked, White-eyed, Blue-headed,                                                                        Slender-billed, Austral, Hispanolian
CAIQUES:                   White-bellied, Black-capped
PARROT:                     BLUE-HEADED, Bronze-winged & white-crowned Pionus, Lesser                                                                          Jardine’s, Blue-naped and Muller’s
AMAZON:                   Nana White-fronted, Yellow- lored.
MACAW:                      Noble

9mm (code – H)
PARAKEET:                Derbyan’s
PARROT:                     Timney grey, Cape (Robustus) , jadine ( Black-winged & Greater) Hawk-                                                                     Headed and maxiilian’s
AMAZON:                 Cuban, Hispanolian, Tucuman, Jamaican Yellow-billed, Yellow-faced,                             
                                       Red- spectacled, White-fronted
MACAW:                    Illiger’s, Red-bellied, Yellow-naped, Blue-headed
COCKATOO:             Goffin’s, Red-vented, Galah
CONURE:                   Mitred, Queen of Bavaria’s

10mm (code- J)
PARROT:                    Ghana grey, Thick-billed, Solomon Eclectus, Lesser Vasa, Cape ( Sauhelius         
                                      & Fuscicollis), Great-billed
AMAZON:                 Green-cheeked, Lilac-crowned, Orange-winged, Red-lored, Vinaceous,                                                                            Yellow-shouldered, Lilacine, Panama,  Parvipes Yellow-naped               
COCKOTOO:             Major Mitchell’s, Citron-crested, Lesser Sulphur-crested, Ducorp’s, Bare- Eyed.
MACAW:                    Severe

SMALL ASIATIC’S IN SOUTH AFRICA

Psittacula family

In South Africa a number of the smaller Asiatic parakeets are been kept and bred. The degree of success varies according to many different external factors; we will go into some of them when appropriate. Some of the species are frequently kept and others are seldom seen and may only be kept by experience aviculturists. The seldom kept species are normally higher priced than the ones you see every day.

All Asiatic have similar characteristics, been a long tail with the two middle feathers much longer than the rest, a bigger upper mandible and been dimorphic with the cock that shows a ring of some kind around the neck. Birds mature around two/three years and this is the time that cock change in appearance. There are some thirty-five species and sub-species of which only nine will be discussed here. These nine range from 28cm to 40cm in size. The smaller species are some of the more colourful among the Asiatic excepted for the mutations. These small birds are somewhat prone to cold and drafts and should have some kind of protection against the elements. The Malabar and the Emerald-collard are mostly affected by cold.

Asiatic origin all, accepted one, from the Asian-continent and the neighbouring islands.

Asiatic does not make good pets, they do like petting, but they can be thought to say a couple of words

The species that will be discussed in this article are Slaty-headed (2), Intermediate Parrakeet, African Ringneck, Malabar, Plum-head, Blossom-head(2) and the Emerald-collared.

Slaty-head ParrakeetPsittacula himalayana himalayana (subspecie: finschii)Description: The adult plumage is predominant green, somewhat lighter, yellow-green, on the abdomen and a blue haze to the breast. The under-wing covert bluish-green. Head colour is dark grey with a black ring in the front and a blue-green ring on the nape. The two middle tail feathers are deep blue with the tip yellow, these feathers are some 15-20cm long. Only the male will have shoulder patches, maroon-red. A red upper mandible, tipped yellow and a yellow lower mandible. Legs are grey with dark toenails. The finschii sub-specie is noticeable thinner and leaner bird. The tail feathers a lot narrower than, and not as broad as in the nominate specie, the colour are more violet-blue. Hens are the same as cocks only much duller. Young birds have a green head with some grey and the tail is a lot shorter. Shoulder patches are not clearly defined when young. Eyes pale white.
Length: 40cm (tail up to 50% of total length)

Weight: 100-125g

Origin: Range – Afghanistan, India, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam and China

Status – Common to uncommon in cultivated areas

Aviculture: Freely imported at one stage but not often seen today. In SA there are some dedicated breeders that keeps them, not withstanding the lower price are availability.

Accommodation: Walk-in aviary 2-3m or suspended-aviary 1.8m long.

Diet: Mixture of small seeds with limited sunflower and a good soft-food mix.

Breeding: Double wire is needed. Nest box of 50X20X20cm with entrance of 8cm. Brooding by the hen while cock help feeding the chicks when 2-3weeks old.

Clutch: 3-4 but up to 6 eggs possible

Incubation: 24 days by the hen alone. They are usually excellent parents

Young in nest: 7 weeks and sexually mature at 2-3years. (Head colour change at first mould to grey)

Mutations: A Lutino, Blue and Greygreen are known in Europe, none in SA.

African ringneck parrakeetPsittacula krameri krameri (the nominate specie of the ringneck parrakeet)
Description: The adult plumage is green with a yellow-green under tail. The two middle tail feathers are blue. A dark red, almost black upper mandible and a black lower. Males mature at 2-3years and obtain a black neckring, black in front and purple to pink in the neck, a blue hue are shown above the neckring. A narrow black line from the cere to the eye develop in cocks, hens lack these markings. Young birds resemble the hen with a much shorter tail.

Length: 37-39cm

Weight: 105g

Origin: Range – North-central Africa (Guinea, Senegal, Uganda, Sudan)

Status – Common to uncommon in variety of habitats

Aviculture: Freely imported at one stage but not often seen today. A great number of the imported were exported shortly after words. While importation took place great numbers of cocks were available.

Accommodation: Walk-in aviary 2-3m or suspended-aviary 1.8m long.

Diet: Mixture of small seeds with limited sunflower and a good soft-food mix. Newly imported birds needed more soft-food.

Breeding: Double wire is needed. Nestbox of 50X20X20cm with entrance of 8cm.

Clutch: 4-5 but occasionally 6 eggs (usually single-brooders)

Incubation: 24 days

Young in nest: 7 weeks and sexually mature at 2-3years.

Mutations: None are known. (Hybrids were seen with the Indian ringneck)

Plum-headed ParakeetPsittacula cyanocephala
Description: Cocks: Purple red head with a bluish-purple haze on the hindcrown, bordered by a black neckring. Beneath the neckring a blue-green collar exists. The middle two tail feathers are blue tipped with white while the secondary feathers are yellow-green tipped with yellow. The abdomen are lighter, a more yellowish green while the wings are darker green. Under-wing covert greenish-blue. Maroon red shoulder patches are found in cock but most hens don’t have them. The upper mandible is bone coloured and the lower dark to black. Hens: Head bluish grey without the black ring and the collar yellow. Young birds resembles the hens but with a much shorter tail and duller colour.

Crossbreeding between the plum-head and the Blossom-head took place because of ignorance, take note of the differences. The tip of the tail (white or yellow), the wing patch (absent or not) and the under-wing cover (greenish-blue or green). Piercing eye with a yellow iris.

Length: 34cm

Weight: 90g

Origin: Range – India, Pakistan, Nepal and Sri Lanka

Status – Widespread and common in variety of habitats, declining in Sri Lanka

Aviculture: Freely imported at one stage, now established and often seen. They are tolerant towards other parakeets and are known to be peaceful with finches.

Accommodation: Walk-in aviary 2-3m or suspended-aviary 1.8m long, protected against freezing temperatures witch they are sensitive to.

Diet: Mixture of small seeds with limited sunflower and a good soft-food mix.

Breeding: Double wire is needed. Nestbox of 40X20X20cm with entrance of 7cm. Cocks become more aggressive at breeding time. Pairs do not bond for live. The courtship of the male is preformed by walking up and down the perch while spreading tail feathers, nodding the head and pulling up the tail.

Clutch: 4-5 but occasionally 6 eggs (usually single-brooders)

Incubation: 23 days (birds are easily disturbed by nest inspections). Pairs are not always successful at raising their young.

Young in nest: 7 weeks and sexually mature at 2-3years.

 

Mutations: Known in SA are the Lutino, Cinnamon, Pastel, Dilute, Greygreen, Pied and Blue. (It is not known if any Opaline’s are in SA) All these mutations are kept by a handful of breeders and are seldom seen.

Malabar Parakeet (Blue-winged Parakeet)Psittacula colomboides
Description: These birds when mature make a beautiful picture and will always be remembered. Cocks: Head, back and breast are bluish grey with a faint hint of pink, violet blue above the beak and green from the cere to the eye region. The black neckring runs around the whole neck, broader to the front. A turquoise ring just below the black ring. The lower abdomen area is yellowish green with a backside darker green. The upper wing feathers are all rimmed pale yellow with blue flight feathers while the rumped is turquoise. The under-wing covert green. The lower mandible black with a red upper mandible. Tail feather are green on top and yellow below with the two middle feathers blue. The eyes are dark coloured with a yellow iris and the legs and feet grey with black nails. Hens: Hens lack the turquoise neckring wile the green in the eye area are less. Where the upper mandible in the cock is red it is black in young and the hens. Young: All young have somewhat shorter tails while the orange red beak turns black after the first mould. The upper beaks of young male will start to turn red at reaching maturity around two years.

Length: 38 cm

Weight: 100-110g

Origin: India (birds of the wetter areas)

Aviculture: Established but not often seen and not a prolific breeder.

Accommodation: Walk-in aviary 2-3m or suspended-aviary 1.8m long. Bigger aviaries are used by most people because of the rarity and beauty. Not tolerant to cold.

Diet: Mixture of small seeds with limited sunflower and a good soft-food mix, extra fruit are needed.

Breeding: Double wire is needed. Nestbox of 50X20X20cm with entrance of 7cm. During the mating season the male will lower his body, raise his head and tail while jumping from branch to branch. Breeders can be paired up with another partner with minimal problems, if aggression occurs it will be from the hen.

Clutch: 4 eggs (usually single-brooders, female alone. Cock does not assist with feeding of the chicks up to leaving the nest)

Incubation: 24 days (birds are easily disturbed by nest inspections) but most birds are excellent parents.

Young in nest: 7 weeks and sexually mature at 2-3years (but can be bred at 18months).

Mutations: None that we know of

Intermediate ParakeetPsittacula intermedia
Description: Opinions differ among Aviculturist whether the Intermediate are a hybrid or a specie. When looking at the birds closely a difference can be seen that indicates them to be specie. The lower mandible of the hybrid is always black wile that of the specie is bone-coloured yellow. Cocks: The birds are predominantly green with a yellow-green belly and lower breast. Forehead and periophthalmic region rufous pink and remainder of head slaty-purple. The nape is turquoise while cocks have a red shoulder patch witch lack in hens. Under-wing covert bluish-green. Tail feathers are blue, tipped yellow. Eyes black with yellow iris and feet grey with dark nails. The upper mandible orange with a yellow lower one.

Length: 36cm

Weight: 100g

Origin: Occur in the overlapping areas of the Plum-head and the Slaty-head in Northern parts of India.

Aviculture: Never imported, not known to be established or seen here. Birds known in SA could be hybrids and if any pure-bred birds do exist, they should be pampered.

Accommodation: Walk-in aviary 2-3m or suspended-aviary 1.8m long.

Diet: Mixture of small seeds with limited sunflower and a good soft-food mix.

Breeding: Double wire is needed. Nestbox of 50X20X20cm with entrance of 7cm.

Clutch: 3-5 but occasionally 6 eggs (should be as in Plum-heads)

Incubation: 23 days

Young in nest: 7 weeks and sexually mature at 2-3years.

Mutations: None that we know of.

Blossom-headed ParrakeetPsittacula roseata
Description: These birds are pale coloured if compared to the Plum-head and noticeable smaller. Two subspecies are known, roseata roseata and roseata juneae. Cock: Green with a somewhat lighter breast and belly, under-wing covert green. Head colour more pink than the purple of the Plum-head. The pink has a blue haze towards the black necking witch is wide underneath the beak and becomes narrower towards the nape. No green blue haze underneath the black neckring as seen in the Plum-head while the shoulder patch is bigger. Tail blue tipped yellow. Hen: As in the cock but with a light grey head bordered with a yellowish green ring that replace the black ring. They retain the shoulder patch. Both sexes have yellow upper mandible and dark grey lower, legs grey and iris yellow. Young birds have greenish grey heads and no shoulder patches.

The subspecies juneae (Burmese Blossom-head) is overall lighter and more yellow-green.

Length: 30cm

Weight: 85g

Origin: Occurs in Assam, Pakistan and Bangla Desh. (Subspecies occurs in Burma, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam)

Aviculture: Established but not often seen.

Accommodation: Walk-in aviary 2-3m or suspended-aviary 1.8m long.

Diet: Mixture of small seeds with limited sunflower and a good soft-food mix.

Breeding: Double wire is needed. Nestbox of 40X20X20cm with entrance of 6cm.

Clutch: 3-5 eggs (single-brooders)

Incubation: 23 days (birds are easily disturbed by nest inspections)

Young in nest: 7 weeks and sexually mature at 2-3years.

Mutations: A Pied and Lutino are known.

Emerald-collared ParrakeetPsittacula calthorpae
Description: The smallest and one of the rarest of the Psittacula family. These birds are predominant green with grey head, shoulders and mantle while under-wing covert green. There are some green above the beak and the shoulder patches are large yellowish green areas. In the neck they have an emerald green ring, while a black ring is present. The tail feathers are cobalt blue with a yellow edge. Eyes are dark with pale yellow iris while the legs are grey with black nails. Cocks: Red upper mandible tipped yellowish while the lower mandible is red with some black. Hen: Beak black-grey and plumage duller overall. Young: Predominantly green and an orange beak which turn black within four months. After one year the beak turn to the colour of mature birds.

Length: 28cm

Weight: 80g

Origin: Sri Lanka

Aviculture: Rare world wide, kept in SA known to have bred.

Accommodation: Walk-in aviary minimum length 3,6m.

Diet: Mixture of small seeds, limited sunflower and a good soft-food mix.

Breeding: Double wire is needed. Nestbox of 50X20X20cm with an entrance of 6cm.

Clutch: 3 or 4 eggs.
Incubation: 25 days

Young in nest: 7 weeks and matures around 3 years.

Mutations: None known.

Compound by
Fanie Klopper

Search
Archives

You are currently browsing the Birds of North West blog archives for October, 2010.

Bookmarks
Login
Poll
    • What do you think of our new website?

      View Results

      Loading ... Loading ...